Don Karl Juravin



Why shouldn’t our beloved pets enjoy the Halloween festivities? That is, without the sweets. After all, they like the tricks. Let’s be honest, most of our pets look anyways better than us in these adorable customs.


The United States technically has no official language

The United States technically has no official language

“Really? What Is The Official Language Of The United States?”

asks Don Juravin

The US is one of the linguistically diverse countries in the world. Historically, approximately 500 languages have been spoken in the country with English as the widely used language. Spanish is the second-most popular language in the country. In fact, the New Mexico state government uses Spanish to offer services and documents. There are also several languages native to the US. American Sign Language is used by approximately 500,000 people. The top five languages spoken in the country are English, Spanish, Chinese, Tagalog, and Vietnamese. Despite the many languages spoken in the US, the country does not have an official language. English is only a de facto primary language in the country.

What’s the Official Language Status?

As stated above, the US does not have an official or national language at the federal level. However, English is considered the official language in 32 states in what has been referred to as “English-only movement.” 30 of the 50 states use English as the official language while Hawaii established both English and Hawaiian as the official language. Alaska recognizes 20 indigenous languages alongside English as official languages. English is also one of the official languages of the territories of the US.

English is the sole language for legislation, regulation, and court rulings. However, the law requires that some documents such as ballots be printed in multiple languages in areas with large number of non-English speakers. English is also taught as a subject at every grade level, even in bilingual institutions. Cumulatively, there are over 230 million English speakers in the US. With over 35 million speakers, the US has the fifth-largest number of Spanish speakers in the world. Other sources estimate Spanish speakers in the country to be 50 million, second-largest after Mexico. Some people consider Spanish a national language and a contender for the official language should there be a need.

So Why the US Does Not Have an Official Language

Neither the federal government nor the constitution of the US gives a reason as to why the country does not have an official language. However, several reasons have been put forward as to why this is so. The country is diverse and has large populations speaking different languages. Thus, declaring one language as the official language is not practical and ignores the historical and current linguistic diversity of the US.

The absence of an official language is considered a natural way of promoting and preserving the native languages and cultures. Forcing people into one common language, especially in a diverse country as the US may be perceived as telling the people to forget their heritage and tradition.

There has been an attempt to make English the official language without success. In 1780, a proposal was presented to the Continental Congress by John Adams to declare English the official language but his proposal was deemed a threat to the individual liberty. The debate has been going on since then with the issue still far from any resolution. There have also been talks to make Spanish an official language alongside English, although the talk and suggestions have not been as intense as making English the official language.




“Guns” refers to firearms: small arms include handguns (revolvers and pistols) and long guns, such as rifles (of which there are many subtypes such as anti-material rifles, sniper rifles, designated marksman rifles, battle rifles, assault rifles, and carbines), shotguns, submachine guns, personal defense weapons, squad automatic weapons, and light machine guns.

JURAVIN RESEARCH conducted an extensive study (latest 2019) comparing firearms ownership around the world. 230 countries were compared. The research focused on the USA vs Euro-top vs. Israel.

How many people in the world own guns? What is the rate of civilian gun ownership to military gun ownership?

Don Juravin answers that only 15% of guns in the world are in the hands of the military and law enforcement.

Research Summary

Don Juravin reveals unconventional facts and news:

85% of the world’s 1,013 billion firearms are in civilian hands.

  • 850 million firearms are owned by civilians, not the military or law enforcement, according to Juravin.
  • 393 million guns are owned by American citizens, according to studies.
  • 120 firearms per 100 citizens in the United States, according to a BBC study.
  • 66% of gun owners in America own multiple firearms, not just one or two.


Guns range from crude craft-made handguns to collectible antiques and state-of-the-art automatic rifles. Civilian ownership is the fastest-growing category, as consumers buy more guns, while military and law enforcement holdings remain more stable and some of their weapons gradually shift into civilian hands.

  • Illegal firearm trafficking, crime, and underworld doings make it impossible to register every single firearm and so the number may be off.
  • Only 3 in 10 Americans actually own a gun despite the 393,000,000 guns in the United States, according to Pew Research.
    • Two-thirds of those owners say they own a gun for protection purposes. In Juravin’s opinion, these owners do not trust the law to protect them.  
    • Two-thirds of gun owners own more than one gun, while one in five gun owners possess multiple guns.
  • Three American brands of guns create 41% of domestic weapons annually around the world.
  • Gun laws in the United States are regulated in a two-fold manner.
  • The Second Amendment of the American Constitution guarantees citizens the right to keep and bear firearms. Juravin learned that many American citizens make use of this amendment.
  • All Title II weapons, such as shotguns, machine guns, and suppressors, are required to be registered and taxed in the United States. There are no laws in the states banning the ownership of these weapons of war.
  • Citizens must be 21 years old or older in order to own a gun in the states. All gun manufacturers and sellers must be registered in the States. This does not stop criminals from buying and selling weapons, however. Felons and those who have been mentally ill are prohibited from purchased weapons unless they have had their rights restored. Again, this does not seem to stop guns from falling into the wrong hands.
  • Automatic firearms are banned from the civilian marketplace. There is no law about semi-automatic weapons, however. Semi-automatic weapons were briefly banned until 2004.
  • Guns are not permitted in school zones. However, the number of shootings that have taken place at schools in the United States have proven this law to be ineffective at best, worthless at most. There have been 152 mass shootings that caused many deaths in the United States.
  • Background checks are also mandatory for those who wish to purchase a gun. However, this does not seem to stop criminals, serial killers, and undesirable people from owning guns. Juravin protects against such situations by informing.  
  • Law enforcement has the right to carry a concealed weapon at any time, with few exceptions. There are between 850,000 and 750,000 law enforcement officers currently active within the United States. This is barely the tip of the iceberg when it comes to the number of guns in America.
  • In a BBC poll, 46% of Americans were unhappy with the gun laws and wanted more restrictions. 39% were satisfied, while 8% wanted less restrictive legislation around guns.
  • JURAVIN reviewed and found that four out of ten men said that they were gun owners, in contrast with three out of ten women who said that they were gun owners. Men were more likely to own a gun than women were.
  • Those that live in the northeastern part of the United States were least likely to own a gun, with only 16% of those who lived there saying they had possession of one. 36% of those who lived in the South said they were gun owners, the highest percentage of those polled.


The rest of the world does not put so much emphasis on guns like the United States. The United States’ weapon problem is a unique issue that European countries and Israel don’t suffer from.

  • The world’s armed forces control 132 million firearms total. Juravin determined that this still leaves some 890 million firearms out in the world, controlled by civilians or criminals.
  • Law enforcement control 22 million firearms. This is not enough to police the amount of gun-owning civilians.
  • In France, 12 million firearms are owned by citizens. There are 20 guns owned per 100 citizens.
  • In Germany, there are 15 million firearms owned by citizens. Overall, there are also 20 guns owned per 100 citizens.
  • Israel has 562,000 civilian-owned guns, and there are 7 guns owned per 100 citizens.

Estimated Civilians Firearms

per 100 persons | 2018-2019 report

Estimate of civilians firearms
World BestBest rateUSAISRAELEuro-topGermanyFranceItaly
Christmas Island, Holy See, Indonesia, Nauru, Taiwan0.00120.506.7017.8719.6019.6014.40

Comparing USA Vs. Europe’s top countries (Germany, France, Italy) Vs. Israel

WINNER: Israel

  • Israel’s estimate of gun ownership is 4.94 times lower than the world average
  • Israel’s estimate of gun ownership is 17.99 times lower than the USA
  • Israel’s estimate of gun ownership is 2.67 times lower than Euro-top
World averageWinnerTimes better than world averageTimes better than the USATimes better than EuroTimes better than Israel

Civilians firearms

  • Israel: 562,800 civilians firearms
  • Euro-top: 37,100,000 civilians firearms
  • USA: 393,300,000 civilians firearms

Important Key Facts

civilian firearms estimate.jpg
civilian firearms estimate.jpg
  • 1,013 billion firearms exist in 230 countries and autonomous territories of the world:
    • 84.6 percent held by civilians
    • 13.1 percent by state militaries
    • 2.2 percent by law enforcement agencies
  • Roughly 100 million civilian firearms were reported as registered, accounting for some 12 percent of the global total.
  • National ownership rates vary from about 120.5 firearms for every 100 residents in the United States to less than 1 firearm for every 100 residents in countries like Indonesia, Japan, Malawi, and several Pacific island states.



Don Juravin (An American born in Israel to a European family) researched and discovered that women are badly misrepresented in office in the country that boasts of the most diversity and gender equality. The military and the political arena are a reflection of governing women.

USA: Only 20% in Congress & 25% state legislators Vs. Israel with 51% female judges and a female Prime Minister in the 70’s. Europe with 38% governing females.

How many women are involved in governing the United States?

Juravin answers that the number is not enough. Only 20% of Congress is female.


  • Only 110 women have seats in Congress, as of 2018. This makes the total of female representatives 20%.
  • Only 74 women hold executive elected positions in the United States.
  • Only 1,875 state legislators are women, out of a total of 7,383 seats. This makes the total of female state legislators 25%.
  • 127,400,000 women are eligible voters in the United States.

Women want to run for president. In the year 2019, at least two have announced that they will be running. Juravin asks: but will their willingness to run and their ability to fundraise help them?


America markets itself as the land of opportunity, the country of advancements, and leading the democratic world. As Juravin discovered, the numbers tell a different story.

The United States just had its first female candidate running for office in 2016. While she was not seen by the American people as worthy of the presidency, it took the United States almost a hundred years to have a female candidate campaign for the seat.

In the past century, there have been over one hundred elected female state leaders in the world. But none of these leaders have come from the United States. In Juravin’s opinion, this seems to be the only country where the people still have strenuous objections to governing women.

In 2018, according to Rutgers, 110 women hold seats in Congress, out of the 535 seats available. Only 20% of Congress is female, as of 2019. But 50% of the population in the United States is female. How can people expect proper legislation on female issues, such as reproductive rights, to be passed with the women in mind? There has only been one female speaker of the House, which according to Juravin is far too few to fully represent women.

In terms of state legislature, Juravin determined 74 women hold executive elected positions across the country, which makes 23.7% of the positions in state office held by women. Out of the 50 states, there are six female governors and 13 lieutenant governors. 1,875 of state legislators are women. There are 7,383 seats in state legislature, making the percentage of female participants around 25%.

Women Carry The Vote

52% of the eligible voters in the country are women, out of a possible 245 million voters. Yet the amount of governing women does not reach higher than 25%.

Women vote in higher numbers and tend to vote more frequently than men. Since 1964, women have outnumbered men in votes. More women typically register to vote, and more women tend to vote a certain way. Men typically vote less frequently, and vote for those that have their interests. In Juravin’s opinion, women tend to vote in the opposite direction.

Even worse, this percentage is historically the highest percentage of women in Congress. There is so much more work to do.

In the book, Women in Politics: An International Perspective, Vicki Randall explains that the reason for why men have a difficult time seeing women in leadership positions. The home has no politics, while the public square is all politics. But I argue that men need to see things differently. The home is political: the mother has to handle the children and command their respect.

The home is also affected by public politics. There is no way to separate the different platforms of life so that they do not affect each other. In the same way, politics is affected by family life. There is no wall between these two conventions.

Women have to realize that this is not a fight to the death. This is the same as dealing with an unruly, unwilling child. One must compromise. Governing women have to work with the men. We cannot have an all female Congress or a matriarchy, just as we cannot have an all male Congress or a patriarchy. The split must be even.


In Israel, women are a more prominent part of politics. The statistics don’t lie. 51% of judges in Israel are female. There have been 17 female Israeli cabinet ministers. Dozens of women have served as members of Parliament. Israel elected its first female prime minister in 1969. America has yet to elect a female president.

One woman at the International Women’s Day Conference in Israel testified that she came to Israel from the Soviet Union with ten dollars in her pocket. She became a member of Parliament and a mayor of a city.


Europe falls in between Israel and the United States. Germany has a female prime minister now. However, France and Italy have yet to elect a female prime minister.

In Germany, seven of the 16 cabinet positions are filled by women. 30% of the members of the German parliament are women. At most, Germany had 36% of Parliament as female.

In France, while there are no female leaders, women are almost half and half with the men in political life. 41% of state and local politicians in France are female.

In Italy, one out of three cabinet members are women. There are no female leaders and apparently very little interest in Italy to find female leaders.

Women started voting relatively recently in the United States and around the world. For women to actively participate in politics and be world leaders is a new concept for many countries in the Western world.

Credit And Research By:

DOI 10.5281/zenodo.2915364



We love sugar. We are genetically wired to love sugar. Sugar activates a rewarding spot in our brain. The brain uses 25% of our daily energy, more than any other organ and glucose is its source of fuel.

I concluded that the FDA is not PROTECTING our health when it comes to sugar deception.

The FDA is not explaining the deadly danger of sugar clearly enough to the public and not repetitively enough. Let’s exposed the food manufacturers’ tricks since 50% of our daily sugar consumption is from ingredients that are not clearly marked as sugar.

Why There Are 56 Names For Sugar?

I found out that Food manufacturers are getting us addicted to sugar by using different sugar names to confuse us on the food label. 75% of all foods hide sugar under deceitful names. Why?

To trick us when we read the food label:

The ingredients on a food label must be listed according to their weight. The food manufacturer wants to avoid listing a sugary ingredient at the top 3 of 5. Therefore they will break it into many sugary ingredients to still maintain the high sugar content and list them at the end.

Instead of adding pure sugar, Food manufacturers add few of the 56 sugar-like ingredients.  That achieves their deceiving goal: not having to list “added sugar” in the “carbohydrates” section. The result: we’re tricked into believing that the rest of the ingredients are natural.

All of these names are SUGAR in disguise – 56 of them:

  • Barley malt
  • Barbados sugar
  • Beet sugar
  • Brown sugar
  • Buttered syrup
  • Cane juice
  • Cane sugar
  • Caramel
  • Corn syrup
  • Corn syrup solids
  • Confectioner’s sugar
  • Carob syrup
  • Castor sugar
  • Date sugar
  • Dehydrated cane juice
  • Demerara sugar
  • Dextran
  • Dextrose
  • Diastatic malt
  • Diatase
  • Ethyl maltol
  • Free flowing brown sugars
  • Fructose
  • Fruit juice
  • Fruit juice concentrate
  • Galactose
  • Glucose
  • Glucose solids
  • Golden sugar
  • Golden syrup
  • Granulated sugar
  • Grape sugar
  • High fructose corn syrup
  • Honey
  • Icing sugar
  • Invert sugar
  • Lactose
  • Malt
  • Maltodextrin
  • Maltose
  • Malt syrup
  • Mannitol
  • Maple syrup
  • Molasses
  • Muscovado
  • Panocha
  • Powdered sugar
  • Raw sugar
  • Refiner’s syrup
  • Rice syrup
  • Sucrose
  • Treacle
  • Turbinado sugar
  • Yellow sugar



Rank Country Plans Avg. Price of 1GB Cheapest 1GB
1 India 57 $0.26 $0.02
2 Kyrgyzstan 12 $0.27 $0.08
3 Kazakhstan 26 $0.49 $0.28
4 Ukraine 12 $0.51 $0.21
5 Rwanda 36 $0.56 $0.04
6 Sudan 35 $0.68 $0.29
7 Sri Lanka 38 $0.78 $0.22
8 Mongolia 26 $0.82 $0.41
9 Myanmar 11 $0.87 $0.65
10 Congo (Democratic Republic of) 31 $0.88 $0.05
11 Israel 25 $0.90 $0.11
12 Russian Federation 31 $0.91 $0.14
13 Bangladesh 53 $0.99 $0.18
14 Finland 20 $1.16 $0.30
15 Malaysia 60 $1.18 $0.24
16 Monaco 3 $1.21 $0.90
17 Indonesia 60 $1.21 $0.13
18 Bhutan 37 $1.25 $0.51
19 Iran 36 $1.28 $0.38
20 Vietnam 41 $1.31 $0.06
21 Poland 57 $1.32 $0.13
22 Denmark 24 $1.36 $0.36
23 Cambodia 36 $1.49 $0.17
24 Egypt 37 $1.49 $0.48
25 Ghana 54 $1.56 $0.34
26 Afghanistan 46 $1.60 $0.66
27 Armenia 29 $1.65 $0.61
28 Morocco 34 $1.66 $0.58
29 Western Sahara 34 $1.66 $0.58
30 Cameroon 36 $1.71 $0.34
31 Italy 44 $1.73 $0.18
32 Jordan 49 $1.79 $0.42
33 Pakistan 58 $1.85 $0.29
34 Chile 60 $1.87 $0.73
35 Dominican Republic 9 $1.88 $1.42
36 Austria 59 $1.88 $0.28
37 Romania 19 $1.89 $0.13
38 Guinea 27 $1.94 $1.20
39 Burundi 31 $2.00 $0.37
40 Kuwait 36 $2.01 $0.06
41 Lithuania 11 $2.06 $0.63
42 Palestine, State of 30 $2.06 $0.20
43 Slovenia 28 $2.21 $0.08
44 Nigeria 57 $2.22 $0.26
45 Nepal 27 $2.25 $0.32
46 Zambia 45 $2.25 $0.42
47 Turkey 56 $2.25 $0.58
48 Belarus 25 $2.36 $0.31
49 Lesotho 30 $2.43 $0.68
50 Australia 56 $2.47 $0.11
51 Peru 23 $2.48 $1.57
52 Réunion 12 $2.51 $0.41
53 Azerbaijan 35 $2.69 $0.23
54 Kenya 54 $2.73 $0.28
55 Thailand 59 $2.78 $0.80
56 Uruguay 41 $2.80 $0.40
57 Moldova 15 $2.82 $0.78
58 Bahrain 20 $2.83 $1.81
59 Tunisia 37 $2.87 $0.31
60 Ethiopia 8 $2.91 $2.11
61 Niger 45 $2.92 $1.38
62 France 49 $2.99 $0.17
63 Guernsey 23 $3.05 $0.48
64 Argentina 36 $3.05 $0.65
65 Åland Islands 6 $3.10 $1.13
66 Mauritania 14 $3.12 $1.22
67 Philippines 19 $3.16 $0.95
68 Albania 33 $3.22 $0.68
69 Uzbekistan 56 $3.27 $0.43
70 Senegal 21 $3.28 $0.29
71 Georgia 36 $3.33 $0.32
72 Madagascar 26 $3.39 $0.80
73 Lao People’s Democratic Republic 37 $3.42 $0.29
74 Brazil 27 $3.50 $1.50
75 Fiji 14 $3.57 $0.47
76 Bosnia and Herzegovina 20 $3.58 $0.49
77 Malawi 18 $3.59 $1.37
78 Macedonia 37 $3.62 $0.57
79 Sweden 58 $3.66 $0.37
80 Estonia 31 $3.67 $0.45
81 Singapore 37 $3.67 $0.37
82 Mauritius 11 $3.71 $1.75
83 Liberia 35 $3.75 $0.60
84 Iceland 23 $3.78 $0.26
85 Spain 56 $3.79 $0.77
86 Jersey 30 $3.82 $0.52
87 Ireland 24 $3.95 $0.65
88 Hong Kong 51 $4.00 $1.01
89 Côte d’Ivoire 11 $4.10 $2.30
90 Syria 29 $4.14 $0.51
91 Cape Verde 13 $4.25 $2.56
92 Montenegro 13 $4.26 $0.64
93 Luxembourg 17 $4.39 $0.45
94 Timor-Leste 25 $4.48 $2.50
95 Guatemala 19 $4.53 $1.43
96 El Salvador 27 $4.55 $1.33
97 Belize 34 $4.57 $2.56
98 Qatar 21 $4.62 $1.10
99 Jamaica 23 $4.64 $1.86
100 Burkina Faso 34 $4.69 $1.72
101 Uganda 51 $4.69 $0.88
102 Serbia 36 $4.83 $0.34
103 Tajikistan 34 $4.84 $1.05
104 Macau 39 $4.84 $1.78
105 Libya 13 $4.87 $1.20
106 Croatia 38 $4.89 $0.46
107 Czech Republic 22 $4.91 $1.76
108 Sint Maarten 26 $4.92 $1.11
109 Vanuatu 16 $4.94 $3.39
110 Guinea-Bissau 7 $4.96 $2.10
111 American Samoa 11 $4.97 $3.89
112 Honduras 16 $5.02 $2.48
113 Costa Rica 18 $5.04 $2.72
114 Algeria 21 $5.15 $0.48
115 Brunei Darussalam 9 $5.25 $2.29
116 Maldives 16 $5.27 $2.59
117 Colombia 57 $5.28 $0.72
118 Gambia 20 $5.33 $2.45
119 São Tomé and Príncipe 19 $5.33 $1.38
120 Panama 29 $5.56 $2.00
121 Slovakia 32 $5.56 $0.82
122 Saudi Arabia 42 $5.62 $0.38
123 Congo 41 $5.63 $1.23
124 Sierra Leone 13 $5.79 $3.49
125 Gabon 10 $5.84 $1.72
126 Tanzania 40 $5.93 $0.43
127 Northern Mariana Islands 22 $5.99 $1.74
128 Central African Republic 11 $6.03 $2.87
129 Nicaragua 32 $6.04 $2.45
130 Guadeloupe 9 $6.06 $0.90
131 Suriname 23 $6.08 $1.91
132 Paraguay 30 $6.18 $2.47
133 Somalia 24 $6.19 $1.60
134 Isle of Man 14 $6.42 $0.90
135 Hungary 18 $6.56 $1.51
136 United Kingdom 60 $6.66 $0.26
137 San Marino 6 $6.86 $1.54
138 Bahamas 16 $6.89 $2.00
139 Ecuador 18 $6.93 $0.65
140 Germany 58 $6.96 $1.88
141 Latvia 13 $7.12 $2.09
142 Bulgaria 26 $7.15 $0.58
143 South Africa 58 $7.19 $0.71
144 Barbados 35 $7.21 $1.83
145 Guyana 25 $7.24 $4.09
146 Mexico 57 $7.38 $2.06
147 Saint Barthélemy (St. Barts) 17 $7.40 $0.56
148 Faroe Islands 7 $7.77 $1.15
149 Haiti 24 $7.91 $0.46
150 Angola 13 $7.95 $1.91
151 The Netherlands 41 $7.99 $0.90
152 Iraq 24 $8.00 $1.46
153 Palau 7 $8.34 $3.13
154 Japan 60 $8.34 $1.04
155 Solomon Islands 16 $8.37 $6.13
156 Martinique 30 $8.46 $0.78
157 Bolivia 28 $8.51 $2.08
158 Niue 10 $9.20 $4.37
159 Lebanon 20 $9.21 $1.30
160 Mali 15 $9.22 $3.10
161 Taiwan 35 $9.49 $1.03
162 Caribbean Netherlands 34 $9.57 $2.00
163 Saint Lucia 25 $9.78 $2.33
164 New Zealand 42 $9.79 $1.91
165 China 28 $9.89 $0.87
166 Mayotte 8 $10.18 $0.90
167 United Arab Emirates 21 $10.23 $2.17
168 Svalbard and Jan Mayen 11 $10.26 $2.32
169 Saint-Martin (France) 29 $10.40 $0.56
170 Namibia 24 $11.02 $2.35
171 Kiribati 22 $11.05 $4.30
172 Puerto Rico 21 $11.12 $3.00
173 Oman 38 $11.28 $3.90
174 Papua New Guinea 34 $11.51 $6.83
175 Grenada 20 $11.56 $4.24
176 Antigua and Barbuda 41 $11.71 $1.94
177 Togo 3 $11.76 $11.49
178 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 23 $12.00 $3.69
179 Canada 60 $12.02 $3.73
180 Swaziland 45 $12.14 $1.58
181 Belgium 60 $12.30 $2.21
182 United States 32 $12.37 $1.50
183 Curaçao 25 $12.42 $7.72
184 Comoros 10 $12.57 $2.29
185 Cuba 5 $12.58 $11.25
186 Aruba 22 $12.70 $7.41
187 Andorra 10 $12.71 $5.83
188 Gibraltar 11 $12.82 $3.21
189 Micronesia (Federated States of) 7 $12.87 $0.83
190 Guam 35 $12.97 $1.74
191 Virgin Islands (U.S.) 21 $13.10 $2.40
192 Norway 49 $13.21 $1.27
193 French Guiana 28 $13.41 $0.57
194 Liechtenstein 17 $13.95 $3.49
195 Portugal 25 $13.98 $2.12
196 Botswana 15 $14.12 $9.01
197 Dominica 25 $14.60 $6.17
198 Montserrat 17 $14.61 $4.93
199 Anguilla 23 $14.90 $1.97
200 Saint Kitts and Nevis 31 $15.05 $5.38
201 South Korea 15 $15.12 $0.47
202 Yemen 29 $15.73 $4.00
203 Mozambique 34 $15.82 $0.80
204 Greenland 3 $16.79 $12.60
205 New Caledonia 9 $16.91 $11.26
206 Trinidad and Tobago 7 $17.10 $9.79
207 Cook Islands 8 $18.12 $11.38
208 Virgin Islands (British) 42 $18.55 $5.83
209 Malta 29 $18.79 $2.26
210 Seychelles 23 $19.55 $3.66
211 Turkmenistan 7 $19.81 $10.01
212 Switzerland 12 $20.22 $8.30
213 Cyprus 13 $20.25 $6.39
214 Benin 16 $20.99 $17.24
215 French Polynesia 14 $21.64 $8.91
216 Turks and Caicos Islands 26 $23.09 $10.00
217 Chad 10 $23.33 $9.39
218 Tonga 8 $25.52 $4.43
219 Cayman Islands 26 $26.79 $3.99
220 Wallis and Fortuna 6 $26.86 $15.40
221 Nauru 5 $28.13 $12.25
222 Tokelau 15 $29.96 $17.06
223 Samoa 42 $30.09 $1.33
224 Greece 15 $32.71 $2.37
225 Bermuda 25 $37.74 $6.25
226 Djibouti 5 $37.92 $2.81
227 Falkland Islands 4 $47.39 $28.00
228 Saint Helena 4 $55.47 $51.70
229 Equatorial Guinea 12 $65.83 $27.58
230 Zimbabwe 37 $75.20 $12.50


Juice manufacturers in the food and drink industry list the nutrients of natural orange juice at the time of packaging, per the FDA. Based on the nutrition facts label, the consumer expects to have benefited from all the claimed nutrients until it’s expired. JURAVIN RESEARCH found that while no one is lying, per se,  the label tricks the consumer. What fresh OJ manufacturers don’t tell you is that once you open the container, Vitamin C immediately oxidizes and vanishes.


Your body gains 10 tsp of sugar and 1 oz of fat.

How is the consumer being tricked when buying orange juice marked “natural” or “fresh”?

  1. Vitamin C vanishes to zero (100% of the 65 mg vitamin C vanishes).
  2. OJ’s levels of sugar are similar to a soda.
  3. OJ must be pasteurized for longer shelf-life which destroys the nutrients in the process.
  4. 16 oz fresh OJ has 223 calories while Coke has 186 calories.
  5. Concentrated OJ has more Vitamin C than the expensive, fresh or natural OJ.
  6. A tall glass of OJ has about 10 tsp of sugar and will add 1 oz of fat to your body.  


Natural orange juice costs 2 to 3 times more than orange flavored drinks. Soft drink companies offer a natural OJ taste and even add artificial pulp to spare consumers from the calories and help them save money. Moreover, such flavored orange drinks are healthier than those claimed to be “fresh” or “natural” (which are NOT and will be discussed in JURAVIN RESEARCH other studies).

Moreover, Don Karl Juravin reviewed and found that added ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) to a diet orange drink benefits more than the natural, vanishing Vitamin C. Drink manufacturers can offer these health benefits, but as long as consumers continue to pay double or triple for “fresh” juice, why should they?

The Vitamin C Deception

We found evidence of decreasing Vitamin C levels from bottling to the moment of the consumer’s first sip; by the expiration date, the Vitamin C has completely vanished. What fresh orange juice manufacturers don’t tell you is that once you open the container, Vitamin C immediately oxidizes and vanishes. This means that the Vitamin C on the label has no more value.

The clinical trial compared the REAL available Vitamin C content of reconstituted (concentrated) frozen orange juice at preparation vs. “freshly squeezed” orange juices. The lab bought orange juice from local retailers and stored at optimal refrigeration. They analyzed the juices for reduced and oxidized Vitamin C content at the time of purchase. The lab re-analyzed 3 times per week for 4 to 5 weeks.

Our research found that many claim The Recommended Daily Dose of Vitamin C to be 60 mg a day while doctors advise a much higher volume.  Natural orange juice labels’ claims are for 100% RDA of Vitamin C in every glass.



Understanding Addiction To Sweetness


Importance of the research: the goal of the three articles is to understand the role of sweetness as the #1 cause of obesity. The research will also determine if sweeteners are a true solution or if they only lead to gaining more weight. Is it possible we're being misled and the FDA is turning a blind eye?
  •  1: Understanding addiction to sweetness
  •  2: The harm of sweeteners’ fillers 
  •  3: All sweeteners compared – which is best for weight reduction?
  •  4: Are sweeteners healthy or damaging?

Author: Don Karl Juravin has helped 90,000 morbidly obese people to achieve a healthy weight. He is the inventor of the “gastric bypass ALTERNATIVE” which is awaiting clinical test results before going back on the market. The average user of Juravin’s invention needed to lose about 130 lbs. And so over a 10 year period, Juravin‘s Facebook group, with 90,000 members, became the most successful weight loss group on the web with the highest weight loss success rate.

What are sugars?

Sugar is the common name for a simple, short chained carbohydrates, consisting essentially of sucrose. It is used to sweeten food and beverages.

What are carbohydrates?

Carbohydrates, the natural and biological molecules, contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (Cm(H2O)n). Scientists have classified them as:

  1. Monosaccharides: Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates and are often called ‘single sugars’. They are the building blocks from which all bigger carbohydrates are made. E.g. Glucose, fructose, and ribose.
  2. Disaccharides: Disaccharides contain two monosaccharides linked via a chemical bond. E.g. Sucrose (table sugar) and lactose.
  3. Oligosaccharides: Oligosaccharides contain 3 to 9 monosaccharides linked via chemical bonds. E.g. Maltodextrin.
  4. Polysaccharides: Polysaccharides contain 10 or more monosaccharides linked via chemical bonds. E.g. Starch, cellulose and pectin.

What is sweetness?

  • A pleasant taste, characteristic of sugar or honey, describes the taste of sweetness. The Sweetness Perception Rating scores different levels of sweetness. According to Juravin, sugars and sweeteners have varying levels of sweetness. While various chemicals and plants produce a sweet taste, sugars are the main biological and chemical molecules associated with sweetness. All carbohydrates break down into simple sugars and produce a sweet taste.
  • A sweet substance produces sweetness when it reacts chemically with taste receptor cells located on taste buds in the oral cavity, mostly on the tongue. The tongue has 5 different taste receptors. One of them is for sweet tastes.

Sweetness Perception Rating

  • Scientists rate sweetness perception on a scale used to determine the sweetness of a substance. Sucrose (table sugar) is the reference most commonly used. In order to rate based on intensity and pleasantness, scientists compare the sweetness of every substance or chemical with the sweetness of sucrose.
  • The reference value of sucrose is set to be 1 or 100.
  • Fructose has a value of 1.2 to 1.7 or 120 to 170, which means fructose is 120% to 170% sweeter than sucrose.
  • Juravin discovered that glucose and dextrose have 0.7 to 0.8 relative sweetness. Therefore they are 70% to 80% sweeter compared to sucrose (Fontvieille 1989, The Canadian Sugar Institute 2016).

White and brown sugar

Sucrose (aka table sugar) is a crystalline tabletop and industrial sweetener used in foods and beverages. 1 teaspoon (~4g) of sugar = 16 calories, or 1g of sugar = 4 calories.

Source: (Yang 2010)

The difference between white and brown sugar

  • Both white and brown sugar are sweet granules derived from the sugarcane plant. Sugarcane juice is extracted and boiled until molasses-rich sugar crystals form. These crystals are spun rapidly to remove the molasses.
  • White sugar has all molasses removed and is considered ‘pure’, whereas brown sugar is 96% pure (4% molasses) and is considered ‘raw’ (The Sugar Association 2016).
  • Both white and brown sugar contain 4 calories per gram or 16 calories per teaspoon.

History of sugar

Juravin‘s research revealed when sugar was first discovered (1099 AD), it was extremely expensive and considered ‘white gold’. Now, technology advanced sugar to be a cheap commodity no longer reserved for only the rich.

Functions of sugar

  • Sugar performs a variety of functions in food products, in addition to providing a sweet taste and flavor (Canadian Sugar Institute 2016):
  1. Preservative: Jams and jellies
  2. Inhibits the growth of microorganisms: Jams and jellies
  3. Holds moisture and prevents staleness: Baked goods such as cakes
  4. Enhances texture and color: Canned fruits and vegetables
  5. Prevents ice crystal formation: Frozen sweet mixtures such as ice creams
  6. Supports fermentation: Products containing yeast such as bread.

Sugar (sucrose) interactions with the brain

 Consumption of sugar activates brain reward pathways, promoting food cravings and consumption.

  • Sugar recruits a distributed pathway within the brain. The pathway associates with a rise in dopamine. This rise prioritizes energy-seeking over taste quality, which results in the promotion of food consumption (Tellez 2016).
  • Glucose increases food-seeking behavior through sweet-tasting mechanisms in the mouth and gut as well as glucose-sensing mechanisms in the gut (Ochoa 2015).
  • The same form of sugar, glucose, impacts both brain reward regions and eating behavior directly by entering the brain. It impacts them indirectly through peripheral neural input. Oral and intestinal sweet-tasting/sugar-sensing mechanisms also indirectly impact the brain.  (Ochoa 2015).

Different effects of different sugars on the brain

Equal parts of fructose and glucose compose sugar. Juravin determined that almost all sugars and sweeteners activate the brain reward system, but to different extents. For instance,  fructose consumption is accompanied by a higher activity rising in the brain reward system and less satiety inducing. Glucose, saccharin, and sucralose have a similar effect, to a lesser extent.

  • Sweeteners and sugars stimulate brain reward pathways because of their sweetness intensity, not caloric value (Lenoir 2006).
  • Glucose and fructose ingestion differentially modulate the release of satiation hormones (Wölnerhanssen 2015). Fructose provides less satiating effects than glucose.
  • Relative to fructose, glucose ingestion induces greater elevations in plasma glucose (by ~1.3 to 1.4 times) and insulin (by ~3 times), increasing feelings of fullness and decreasing consequent food consumption (Wölnerhanssen 2015, Page 2013). Furthermore, fructose causes higher increases in the activity of brain regions within the limbic network involved in reward behavior in comparison to glucose (Wölnerhanssen 2015).
  • Different sugars affect control of intake differently. For instance, while fructose results in doubling of blood triglycerides, glucose intake upregulates 7 and affects 6 satiety-related hypothalamic peptides (Colley 2015) resulting in an increased sense of satiety after glucose intake compared to fructose.

Further Evil Effects of Sugar

  • Glucose and fructose intake increase dopamine in brain reward regions (Dela Cruz 2015). This results in an increased desire for more foods, especially carbohydrates.
  • Fructose ingestion results in higher brain reactivity to food cues, more hunger, and desire for food and smaller increases in plasma insulin in comparison to glucose ingestion, resulting in more promotion of feeding behavior after fructose ingestion (Luo 2015).
  • In addition, Fructose consumption reduces blood flow in the hypothalamus, but less in comparison to glucose consumption, resulting in less hunger suppression (Page 2013).
  • Higher fructose to glucose ratio in foods enhances the reinforcing effects of sugar. It also leads to neurobiological and physiological alterations associated with the higher desire to food intake (Levy 2016).
  • Sugar bingeing is higher after consumption of fructose in comparison to glucose and sucrose (Rorabaugh 2015).
  • Saccharin causes lower rises in dopamine metabolites of the brain in comparison to other carbohydrates indicating less rewarding properties of saccharin compared to other sugars (McCutcheon 2012, Blackburn 1986).
  • Sucralose causes lower activation of brain regions involved in reward and lower dopamine rise in comparison to sucrose (Frank 2008).

Sugars’ effects on weight

  • If an individual were to consume 5 beverages with high volumes of sugar daily, this would be an additional 212 calories per day, or 77, 380 calories per year. The human body would gain of ~10 kg (~22 lbs) per year.
  • Sugar is highly addictive and increases cravings, resulting in increased food intake and weight gain.



It reads on the WWII bombs: “Easter eggs for Hitler” and “Happy Easter Adolf”

Don Karl Juravin researched US military involvement in Europe in WWII.

The military history of the United States in World War II covers the war against GermanyItaly, and Japan, starting with the 7 December 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor. During the first two years of WWII, the United States maintained formal neutrality. The Quarantine Speech, delivered by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1937, confirmed the States’ neutrality. However, the country also supplied Britain, the Soviet Union, and China with war material through the Lend-Lease Act, which was signed into law on 11 March 1941. The U.S. also deployed the military to replace the British invasion forces in Iceland. Following the “Greer incident,” Roosevelt announced the “shoot on sight” order on 11 September 1941. This action effectively declared naval war on Germany and Italy in the Battle of the Atlantic.[1] In the Pacific Theater, there was unofficial early U.S. combat activity, such as the Flying Tigers.



During the war, over 16 million Americans served in the United States Armed Forces. 405,399 died in action and 671,278 received wounds.[2] There were also 130,201 American prisoners of war.  116,129 of the prisoners returned home after the war.[3] Key civilian advisors to President Roosevelt included Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson. Stimson also mobilized the nation’s industries and induction centers to supply the Army. General George Marshall commanded the armed forces. The Army Air Forces took direction from General Hap Arnold. The Navy, led by Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox and Admiral Ernest King, proved more autonomous. Roosevelt and the Joint Chiefs of Staff, chaired by William Leahy, set overall priorities. The highest priority went to the defeat of Germany in Europe. But after the sinking of the main battleship fleet at Pearl Harbor, the war against Japan in the Pacific became more urgent.

Don Karl Juravin notes that Admiral King put Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, based in Hawaii, in charge of the Pacific War against Japan. A series of some of the most famous naval battles in history followed this decision. The Imperial Japanese Navy had the advantage, taking the Philippines as well as British and Dutch possessions. Japan threatened Australia but in June 1942, Americans sunk its main carriers during the Battle of Midway. The Americans seized the initiative. Juravin discovered that the Pacific War became one of island hopping. The American army moved air bases closer and closer to Japan.


The Army, based in Australia under General Douglas MacArthur, steadily advanced across New Guinea to the Philippines. It made plans to invade the Japanese home islands in late 1945. With its merchant fleet sunk by American submarines, Japan ran short of aviation gasoline and fuel oil. The U.S. Navy, in June 1944, captured islands within bombing range of the Japanese home islandsStrategic bombing directed by General Curtis Lemay destroyed all the major Japanese cities. The U.S. captured Okinawa after heavy losses in spring 1945. With the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, as well as an invasion and Soviet intervention imminent, Japan surrendered.


WWII against Germany involved aid to Britain, her allies, and the Soviet Union. The U.S. supplied munitions until it could ready an invasion force. The North African Campaign first tested the U.S. forces to a limited degree.They then joined British Forces to a larger degree in Italy in 1943–45. U.S. forces, representing about a third of the Allied forces deployed, bogged down after Italy surrendered and the Germans took over.

Finally, in June 1944, General Dwight D. Eisenhower invaded France. Meanwhile, the U.S. Army Air Forces and the British Royal Air Force engaged in the area bombardment of German cities. Together, they systematically targeted German transportation links and synthetic oil plants. They also knocked out what was left of the Luftwaffe post Battle of Britain in 1944. With the Soviets in the east, and the Allies in the west, Germany was squeezed to death. Berlin fell to the Soviets in May 1945. With Adolf Hitler dead, the Germans surrendered.

Civilians strongly supported the military effort on the home front. They provided the military personnel, the munitions, the money, and the morale to win the war. World War II cost the United States an estimated $341 billion in 1945 dollars – equivalent to 74% of America’s GDP and expenditures during the war. In 2015 dollars, the war cost over $4.5 trillion.[4][5]



It’s the most important and oldest festival of the Christian Church, celebrating the resurrection of Jesus Christ and held (in the Western Church) between March 21 and April 25, on the first Sunday after the first full moon following the northern spring equinox.

Many Christians celebrate Easter Sunday as the day of Jesus Christ’s resurrection, which is written in the New Testament of the Christian bible. According to the Gospel of John in the New Testament, Mary Magdalene came to the tomb where Jesus was buried and found it empty. An angel told her that Jesus had risen.

Jesus and Easter

Easter, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary c. 30 AD.

The Bible states that if Jesus hadn’t risen, Christian preaching and faith would have been “in vain” or even “empty.” In other words, the belief that Christians have in Jesus’ divinity is rooted in the moment of his resurrection. Without that part of the Easter story, Jesus simply dies and that’s it.

You can also look at it as the meaning of Easter is Jesus Christ’s victory over death. His resurrection symbolizes the eternal life that is granted to all who believe in Him. The meaning of Easter also symbolizes the complete verification of all that Jesus preached and taught during His three-year ministry. If He had not risen from the dead, if He had merely died and not been resurrected, He would have been considered just another teacher or Rabbi. However, His resurrection changed all that and gave final and irrefutable proof that He was really the Son of God and that He had conquered death once and for all.

However, HOLY LAND MAN thinks that Easter did not always symbolize Christ’s resurrection from the dead and the meaning of Easter was quite different than what Christians celebrate today. The feast day of Easter was originally a pagan celebration of renewal and rebirth. Celebrated in the early spring, it honored the pagan Saxon goddess Eastre.

When the early missionaries converted the Saxons to Christianity, the holiday, since it fell around the same time as the traditional memorial of Christ’s resurrection from the dead, was merged with the pagan celebration, and became know as Easter. The meaning of Easter was also changed to reflect its new Christian orientation.

Today, the meaning of Easter, for millions of Christians, is that of honoring and recognizing Jesus Christ’s resurrection from the dead, and His glorious promises of eternal life for all who believe in Him.

Meaning of The Name “Easter”

Theory 1 for the meaning of “Easter”

Don Karl Juravin researched the word Easter and it might have derived from a springtime Anglo-Saxon fertility goddess called Eastre (known as Eostre, in German and in Norse as Ostara), whose symbolism included the hare, the moon and eggs. But that figure is disputed, and others say it derives from the word ‘east’, ‘dawn’ or from the Norse word for the spring season3. Easter is steeped in the symbolism of cycle of the sun, which rises in the East, and which in spring fondles the natural world to life. In the Northern Hemisphere, the spring equinox occurs on the 21st of March when the length of the day increases until it is equal with the length of the night.

The sun, growing in power, finally overtakes darkness, and this solar rebirth is celebrated in most ancient pagan religions, where agricultural life depended on the growth of spring. The other symbol of ancient solar superstition was the moon; and even today, Christians still celebrate their version of Easter on the first Sunday on or after the first Full Moon after the March equinox, tying Easter to its historical pagan roots.

The images of Easter include two of the most ancient and universal symbols of birth, nature, fertility, life, and rebirth: the egg and the rabbit. We told anthropomorphized stories to explain why the sun, and nature, waxed and waned with the seasons, and thus Adonis, Attis, Dionysus, Osiris, and many other Greek and Roman cults celebrated the death and rebirth of their gods at this time of year9. Since the very first centuries,

Theory 2 for the meaning of “Easter”

I also found out that Easter, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary c. 30 AD.

Updates on Christian news

CE Christian apologists have had to defend themselves against accusations that the Jesus story was a retelling of pagan myths9The beloved chocolate egg has now come to be the ubiquitous and central image of Easter and the Easter holidays, and the Easter Bunny can often be seen delivering (and hiding) them, reminding us that Easter is a pagan, sun-worshipping festival.

Happy Easter

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